Reproduction Biotechnology is the oldest method of improving livestock. The first reproductive technology came into existence with the advent of Leeuwenhoek’s & his student Hamm’s investigative discoveries regarding the role of sperms in fertilization. There is also evidence from ancient times of having used horse semen for the production of war horses and thereby giving the impetus for gamete propagation and transfer. Over the years the AI technology has helped in the improvement of livestock with the reduction of venereal diseases. The lethal and semi-lethal gene proliferation has helped in sustaining livestock production by ripping the deformed and disabled genes at the onset. The selection of a healthy bull for gametes propagation avoids the descending of defective genes. Danish veterinarians around 1930 have the honor of establishing AI through rectovaginal technique, which although improved with visionary lapro-guided pipettes or ultra-sonographically monitored inseminations, still holds ground. The AI technology has helped to have 16000-72000 progeny per bull per year, assuming a calving rate of 40-60% per insemination and the bull donating 1-1.5 trillion sperms per day. A cow needs 10-20 million sperms per conception (Foote, 2003). Preservation of semen by freezing, freeze drying, and by pelleting semen, further accelerated the development of livestock making it possible to have more produce from fewer animals. The transformation of low grade animals into superior and high yielding animals through AI technology, incorporating semen evaluation, freezing, and modern day spermatotrans genesis, has revolutionized the livestock industry. Although there are other techniques, this research paper gives a brief description of AI technology only.
The author of this paper is Dr. G. M. Wani. He has written and contributed more than 200 papers in research journals and conferences in the field of biotechnologies of small ruminants. To mention just one of them, his scholarly paper Multiple Management System can be found in the Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences, published by Elsevier Academic Press, UK. Dr. Wani has worked in international institutes of repute, including the Veterinary University of Hanover, Germany; and the Veterinary Research Institute in India. He has a number of national and international awards to his credit, and his biography is included in many leading biographies. At present, Dr. Wani is Director of Extension Education at the University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Srinagar, Kashmir, India.
Number of Words: approx. 870
Number of Pages: approx. 4